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Full text of "Zoological gardens and aquaria for Boston; an appeal"

ZOOLOG I C7=^L GT^RDeNS 
K N 0~ 7=^ 17=^ P- O R, 

BOSTON — 7=^N T^PPeT^L 





/ 




PROPOSED MARINE AQUARIUM AND PARK, SOUTH BOSTON 



3[quarta for Bositon 



Boston g^ociet? of JSatural %)iQtox^ 

1891 




Copyright, 1891, 
By The Boston Society of Natural Histobt 



Clje dnbcr^igncb heartily commend this enterprise to the support of the Citizens of Boston 

and Vicinity : 



FREDERICK L. AMES. 
WILLIAM STURGIS BIGELOW. 
CHARLES P. BOWDITCH. 
MARTIN BRIMMER. 
PHILLIPS BROOKS. 
T. O. H. P. BURNIIAM. 
J. ELLIOT CABOT. 
ELIOT C. CLARKE. 
STEPHEN M. CROSBY. 
RICHARD H. DANA. 
JOHN W. DICKINSON. 
CHARLES W. ELIOT. 
SAMUEL ELIOT. 
WILLIAM ENDICOTT, Jr. 
WILLIAM H. FORBES. 



CURTIS GUILD. 
ALPHEUS H. HARDY. 
THOMAS N. HART. 
HENRY L. HIGGINSON. 
THOS. WENTWORTII HIGGINSON. 
OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. 
EDWARD A. HORTON. 
HENRY O. HOUGHTON. 
MARTIN P. KENNARD. 
JONATHAN A. LANE. 
FRANCIS C. LOWELL. 
THEODORE LYMAN. 
MORTIMER B. MASON. 
NATHAN MATTHEWS, Jr. 
FRANCIS A. OSBORN. 



FRANCIS PARKMAN. 
LEIGHTON PARKS. 
HENRY L. PIERCE. 
JOSIAH QUINCY. 
M. D. ROSS. 
WILLIAM E. RUSSELL. 
C. S. SARGENT. 
JOSHUA M. SEARS. 
EDWIN P. SEAVER. 
H. P. WALCOTT. 
FRANCIS A. WALKER. 
SAMUEL D. WARREN. 
EDWARD WIGGLESWORTH. 
MOSES WILLIAMS. 
ROGER WOLCOTT. 



BOARD OF DIRECTORS 

SAMUEL H. SCUDDER. Chib;„un. ALPHEUS HYATT. 
HENRY P. BOWDITCH. CHARLES W. SCUDDER. 

WILLIAM G. FARLOW. WILLIAM T. SEDGWICK. 

EDAVARD G. GARDINER, Secretarij. 



CONTENTS AND LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



View of proposed Marine Aquarium and Park Frontispiece. 

COMMENDERS OF THE ENTERPRISE .... Page 5 

Board of Directors 6 

Zoological Gardens and Aquaria for Boston . . 9 
Head of Caribou, 9 ; Head of Fox, 10 ; Owl, 11 ; Bear's 
Head, 12 ; Sketch Map of Boston, showing the position 
of the Natural History Gardens, 13. 

The New England Zoological Garden at Franklin 

Park 15 

Bison, 15 ; in the Forest, IG ; Squirrel, 17 ; the Stickle- 
back and its Nest, 18. 

The Fresh-Water Aquarium at Ward's Pond . . 19 
Heron, 19 ; Flamingo, 20 ; Beaver, 21 ; an Unibellula 
(the slender figure), 22; alialf-grown Molaeanthus 
(the central figure), 22 ; Ground Plan of Marine Park 
and Aquarium, 24. 

The Marine Aquarium at City Point . . .25 
A Young Fisliing-Frog, Lophius, 25 ; an Angler, Anten- 
narius, 2G ; a Sea- Worm, 28 ; a Melanocetiis, which swal- 
lows fishes of twice its length, 29 ; a Sea-Hor.se clasping 
with its tail a broken conch-shell, while its young pass 
in and out the pouch, 30. 



Conditions under which they can be established . 31 

Head of Male Moose, 31 ; a Gorgonian, called Chryso- 
gorgia, 32 ; a Porcupine, 33 ; an Eagle, 34. 

The Boston Society of Natural History their 
Proper Guardian . 35 

Red Deer, Buck, 35 ; View of some of the Tanks in the 
Naples Aquarium, 3G ; Red Deer, Doe, 38. 

Public Advantages to be gained . . . .39 

Sternoptyx diaphana, 39 ; an Antijiathes, with the cen- 
tral hollow column occupied by an Aimelid, 40 ; a Sea- 
Gull, 41 ; Wolf's Head, 42. 

Will Boston respond ? 43 

An Octopus, or Cuttle-Fish, 43 ; Deer, 44 ; Jelly-Fish, 
45 ; Wild Ducks in Flight, 4G. 

Council of the' Boston Society of Natural History 47 

*jif* The design of the cover is arranged by Mrs. Whitman ; the 
illustrations of animals are lent by Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
and others. 




ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



HE Reports of the Park Commis- 
sioners and of the Natural History 
Society have informed the pnbhc 
from time to time of certain move- 
ments on foot to secure for Boston suitable 



Zoological Gardens and Aquaria. It is the pur- 
pose of this circular to announce the comple- 
tion of the general plans, and to show the prac- 
ticability and desirability of establishing- these 
institutions under the most favorable auspices. 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



11 



These plans have been worked out with the 
greatest care by those most famiHar with such 
estabhshments elsewhere, and most competent 
to judge how they can be developed to serve 
the best interests of the community. Foreign 
institutions have been copied only so far as 
they are best adapted to our wants, and at 
every step the interests of the general public 
and of education have been independently stud- 
ied, as well as the best methods of exhibiting 
natural objects and their modes of life. 

The establishment is to be divided into three 
distinct departments, in accordance with a natu- 
ral distribution of organic forms; and incident- 
ally a great advantage will thereby be gained, 
since the inhabitants of different parts of the 
city Avill be brought into near proximity to some 
part of the ground occupied. These three 



divisions are to be placed at Franklin Park, in 
the neighborhood of Jamaica Pond, and at City 
Point. 




/ 



THE NEW ENGLAND ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN AT FRANKLIN PARK 



ii 



HIS is to be installed on the city side 
of tlie Playstead at Fvanklin Park in 
, a cliarniino- bit of rocky woodland of 
about twenty acres with very diversified surface, 
called Long" Crouch Woods, a piece of land 
which, on account of its lack of water, is only 
suitable for the exhibition of terrestrial and 



aerial animals. A collection of tropical or sub- 
tropical quadrupeds and other vertebrates could 
not be kept up here without an exjienditure 
far too great to be inidertaken in the initiation 
of an enterprise as varied and extensive as the 
present. It is deemed best, therefore, to ex- 
hibit fully only the animals of the North Tern- 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AJ^ 



perate zone of America, and thus to display 
to the best advantage those which one might 
see within the northern United States. As it is 
easier to obtain and maintain the animals from 
near home, by far the larger part of this col- 
lection will at all times be made up of those now 
or once natives of New England ; but side by 
side with our native animals a few of the cor- 
responding types from other quarters of the 
globe will be shown, in order to illustrate some 
of the more important features of the general 
distribution of life on the earth. 

An Insectary is also proposed in connection 
with this division, in which the transforma- 
tions of our larger insects can be seen, and 
their ways of life, many of which are very in- 
teresting, can be followed ; ants can be made 
to reveal to the curious visitor their hidden ways 
and to teach wisdom, and the processes of ex- 



AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



17 



perimentation for scientific purposes can be 
made intelligible to the public. 

Much of this will be an object of interest 
only or mainly during the warmer season, but 
a winter garden under glass is also projected, 
where one may walk in a comfortable, well- 
lighted inclosure in which the varied vegeta- 
tion, the ponds and fountains with their in- 
habitants, the songs of birds, and the pleasing 
habits of curious strange creatures will tend 
to make him forget the wintry surroundings. 





THE FRESH-WATER AQUARIUM AT WARD'S POND 




PIECE of land adjoining" Ward's 
Pond north of Jamaica Pond, and 
covering abont fourteen acres, with 
ample room and opportunities for ponds and 
running water, has been secured for the Fresh- 
Water Aquarium, which will include not sim- 



ply creatures that inhabit the water, but also 
those which live upon or near its banks. A 
Fish-hatchery may have its place here, and also 
a small Insectary to illustrate the transforma- 
tions of those insects which are aquatic in early 
life, but afterwards crawl up the stems of water 




5 5 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



plants, and by means o£ curious changes of 
structure finally become suited for flying in 
the air. 

Fresh-water animals and plants are modified 
descendants either of marine or terrestrial or- 
ganisms, and it is intended to exhibit this 
striking but rarely considered fact by series of 
living objects side by side. Even the steps of 
the transformations by which certain shrimp- 
like, brine-inhabiting animals become fitted for 
living in fresh water can be directly exhibited 
in a series of aquaria. The educational value 
of such displays, which have not, so far as we 
know, been attempted in similar popular ex- 
hibitions, is obvious. 

This division of the Garden does not require 
strict limitation, and there will be room enough 
to make the display of animals sufficiently ex- 
tensive to include not a few of such tropical 



AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



21 



and subtropical forms as will bear a winter 
confinement ; and nothing short of the neces- 
sary public support need prevent this division 
from becoming not only the first in New Eng- 
land but one of the most important in the 
world. 




THE MARINE AQUARIUM AT CITY POINT 



p. 



ira^N the territory at City Point, now be- 



ing reclaimed from the sea by the 
Park Commissioners, is another spot 



of about eight acres bordering upon the par- 



tially inclosed bay at the Marine Park. This 
affords a good opportunity for salt-water pools 
and basins of considerable size, suitable for 
seals and the smaller Cetacea, — dolphins, por- 



zdOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



27 



poises, and white Avliales, — and also for evad- 
ing birds and all such animals as frequent the 
borders of the sea and can be most advanta- 
geously shown in the open air. 

The more varied and interesting collections 
will be placed in aquaria protected by a suit- 
able building-. The visitor will first enter a 
hall devoted to the exposition of the relations 
of animals and plants to their surroiuidings, 
together with a small synoptical collection 
which, by the aid of dissections and proper 
guides, will unfold the differences between the 
great groups of animals and marine plants, and 
the correlations between their habits and nat- 
ural surroundino-s and also between these and 
their structure. The suitability of organisms 
to do the work they have to perform will be 
illustrated in many ways, and clear ideas of 
some of the fundamental laws of organic modi- 



fication will be jjresented to intelligent visitors 
and students. Thus, the changes which have 
taken place in the structure of the descendants 
of air-breathing land animals in order to fit 
them for life in the sea will be abundantly 
illustrated. 

The main collection will show in separate 
groups the animals found associated in the dif- 
ferent oceanic areas and in the distinct zones 
of life found between the shore and the deep sea. 
Here again only the measure of the success 
attending the undertaking will mark the limit 
to Avhich it will be possible to go in displaying 
the inhabitants of distant waters. The fauna 
south of Cape Cod is in large part easy of ac- 
quisition, the animals exceedingly varied and 
even brilliant, and they would be well rejjre- 
sented in special series of aquaria. Our own 
marine fauna and flora will be kept apart and 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUAMIA FOR BOSTON 



29 



in the foreground, and its exhibition will as- 
tonish all but the professional naturalist with 
its strangeness and beauty, while even he will 
receive new revelations of its extent and signifi- 
cance. It is believed that neither of the other 



divisions can compete with this in the novelty, 
variety, and attractiveness of its displays. As 
the halls will be lighted only through the 
aquaria, the visitor will observe the creatures 
as if himself beneath the sea. 



CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH 

HE plan of establishing such Gardens 
has been before the Natural History 
Society for more than twenty years, 
during all of which time a special connnittee 




THEY CAN BE ESTABLISHED 



has had the matter in charge ; but it is only 
within a few years, since the Park Commission- 
ers were found to be independently entertain- 
ing similar plans, that any prospect seemed to 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS 



be open for the practical consummation of our 
hopes. The correspondence between the Soci- 
ety and the Commissioners will be found in the 
several Reports of the latter body from 1887, 
The commissioners have set apart the three 
parcels of land referred to above for the pur- 
poses mentioned, whenever the friends of the 
Society shall have raised for the establishment 
and endowment of the Gardens and Aquaria 
the sum of two hundred thousand dollars. The 
Council of the Society has further been author- 
ized by the Society at large to proceed with 
such establishment whenever the sum named 
has been raised for that express purpose, with 
certain provisions which guarantee the integrity 
of the funds. Convinced that it would not be 
wise to attempt to begin with the three pro- 
posed divisions at the same time, the Council 



AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



33 



further obtained consent to the beginning of 
operations at City Point with the same provi- 
sions as before, whenever one third of the re- 
quired sum shall have been obtained. 




t 



THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY THEIR PROPER GUARDIAN 



UR Natunil History Society is an insti- 
tution well known to the Boston pub- 
lic. It celebrated its semi-centennial 
ten years ago. It was through its initiative 
that the State Survey in the last generation 
was instituted, and its members were selected 
to carry it out ; this they did to such good 
purpose that it has served as a model to other 



States, and some of the works produced are 
regarded as classics. The Society obtained 
from the State the land on which its buildino- 
now stands, and it has so well merited the 
confidence of the citizens of Boston that it has 
received large endowments from them, and 
notably the means of building its present 
home. It has taken a prominent and effective 




TANKS IN THE NAPLES AQUARIUM 



ZOOLOGICAL GAB DENS 



part in educational matters, as the reports of 
the Superintendent of Schools and the Super- 
visors will testify. It also places freely before 
the public its treasures accumulated through 
decades of hard work and arranoed with rare 
skill. No other institution of the kind in the 
country has manifested its activity in so many 
ways or with greater success. 

If such an establishment as the proposed 
Gardens and Acpiaria is to be anything more 
than a mere pleasure ground, either a new or- 
ganization, expressly established for the })iu'- 
pose, must be formed, or the work must be 
undertaken by one already ecpiipped. It is 
believed that besides the saving of the cost and 
labor of a new organization, the confidence of 
the public, without which the undertaking is 
impossible, will be extended with greater free- 
dom to a Society that has already proved its 



AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



37 



usefulness and its power to undertake a work 
which is only an extension of its present opera- 
tions. The Society, however, has no funds to 
use in this direction, all that it now controls 
being trust-funds devoted solely to such work 
as it has already in hand. It has, therefore, 
by a distinct vote determined that the new 
undertaking must be supported through funds 
obtained for that express purpose. 

It is only just and proper to state that the 
Society and its officers have entered upon this 
undertaking with no desire or object beyond a 
feeling of duty to the ])ublic, and they have 
freely contributed much valuable time and 
labor towards the attainment of this great ad- 
dition to the cause of public education and en- 
joyment in Boston ; success can give satisfac- 
tion, but remuneration is not possible. 




PUBLIC ADVANTAGES TO BE GAINED 

deeper interest will living creatures prove. 
Such an exhibition will give the city child, 
Avhose knowledge of the world about him is so 
pitifully meagre, a new and vivid enjoyment. 
It will offer a healthful and instructive pastime 



HE interest taken by the general pub- 
lic in our natural history museums 
must be seen to be appreciated ; and 
if dead creatures and their bare skeletons can 
attract multitudes of visitors, of how much 




ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



41 



to many otherwise destined to become idlers. 
It will open the eyes of all to the wonders and 
attractions of earth, air, and sea, and be a 
source of strength and life to the recovering' 
invalid. It will plant deep in the hearts of the 
people a shnple love of Nature, which, like all 
refining- influences, will become a corrective 
of mischief and wrong, and a source of pure 
enjoyment. In the crowd of entertainments 
catering- in a greater or less degree to evil pas- 
sions, it will afford a nobler and purer, because 
simpler and healthier, amusement. To many 
it will be the beginning of a new and natural 
life, while to the student of the laws of Nature 
it will ott'er unparalleled fields for investiga- 
tion. 

The establishment of such institutions under 
the immediate auspices of the Natural History 
Society, and upon grounds leased of the Park 



Commissioners for the special purposes herein 
set forth, is a distinct assurance they will be so 
conducted as to merit the approval of all good 
citizens ; and we confidently anticipate that 
when it has been shown Avhat these establish- 
ments can fairly do they will be the recipients 
of the utmost favor from those who possess 
the means for their endowment. 




WILL BOSTON RESPOND? 



T is proposed to begin with the Marine 
Aquarium at City Point, since it is 
nearer the centre of population, and 
will be on the whole the most attractive and 
novel of the three divisions. Its situation can 



be seen on the accompanying' plan. It is easily 
reached. In a very short time the ground 
will be ready for the erection of the needed 
buildings, but no step requiring outlay can be 
taken until one third of the final two hundred 



ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUABIA FOB BOSTON 



45 



thousand dollars is obtained ; and it is hoped 
that many friends, new and old, o* the Boston 
Society of Natural History, of the cause of ed- 
ucation, and of this particular mode of in- 
structing and elevating- the masses, will respond 
with their contributions. It is no sense a 
scheme for the enrichment of those interested 
in it. Every means will be taken to have it 
grow by its own strength, and every gain will 
only enrich and enlarge it and its power of in- 
struction and enjoyment. No cause not purely 
charitable appeals to so many classes and con- 
ditions of men. All employers of men and 
women must be anxious to provide so commend- 
able a source of rational enjoyment and recre- 
ation for themselves and for their employees. 
Every one interested in education must feel a 
responsive chord vibrating in his heart. Every 
public-spirited citizen will see in it an addition 



to the forces which increase the intelligence of 
the voter and thereby tend to make Boston a 
more desirable place of residence. 




ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS AND AQUARIA FOR BOSTON 



47 



ii 



T is hoped that this simple statement 
of facts will answer all the purposes of 



a more elaborate appeal ; but any fur- 
ther information will be gladly given by the 
Secretary of the Society, Dr. J. Walter Fewkes, 
who may be addressed at the Society's Museum 
on Berkeley Street, or by the Treasurer, Mr. 
Charles W. Scudder, whose office is at 4 Post 
Office Square, and to whom contributions and 



pledges may be sent, or by any member of the 
Council whose names are hereto appended. 

The Society will also gladly welcome to its 
membership any willing to aid in this enterprise, 
and otters to all a share and an interest in 
the work it has on hand. Correspondence or 
personal application in this direction is desired, 
and may be addressed to the Secretary or to any 
member of the Council. 



Frederick W. Putnam, President. 

8. L. Abbot. 

George H. Barton. 

Edward T. Bouvfc. 

Thomas T. Bouvfe, Ex-President. 

Henry P. Bowditch. 

William Brewster 

Edward Burgess. 

John Cumminos, Ex-Vice-President. 

J. H. Emerton. 



Edward G. Gardiner. 

George L. Goodale, Ex-Vice-President. 

Henry W. Haynes. 

Samuel Henshaw. 

Ai.pheus Hyatt, Curator. 

B. Joy Jeffries, Vice-President. 

John Amory Jeffries. 

Edward S. Morse. 

William H. Niles, Vice-President. 

Ellen H. Richards. 



Charles W. Scudder, Treasurer. 
Samuel H. Scudder, Ex-President. 
William T. Sedgwick. 
N. S. Shaler. 
Charles J. Sprague. 

D. Humphreys Storkr, Ex-Vice-President. 
B. H. Van Vleck. 
Samuel Wells. 

James C. White, Honorary Secretary. 

J. Walter Fewkes, Secretary and Librarian. 



A letter from the Council to the Park Conniiissioners, giving fuller details as to wliat is proposed to show in the three 
exhibits at Franklin Park, Jamaica Pond, and Marine Park, can be had on application to the Secretary. 




^rintttJ at tit Biotveiise l&rcs^, (STambriboe 



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